The Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka had made earlier the discovery, earning the Nobel Prize in , that cells from adult skin can be.
Scientists have converted adult skin cells directly into beating heart cells efficiently without having to first go through the laborious process of.
This involved treating the adult skin cells with a specialized culture that caused them to regress in their development to an embryonic-like.
Scientists also use the term somatic stem cell instead of adult stem cell, where skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium, and testis.
Scientists have managed to reprogram human skin cells directly into to ferry into adult cells the same four genes they had previously used to.